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Switching gears away from intent training, but in a related vein, in this post we will be exploring how different types of movement can create opportunities and effects in a Martial Exchange.
The study of the mechanics found in the combat arts is, at its core, the search for efficiency in dealing with forces. These could be forces acting upon us, or forces that we produce to act on others. Forces as we mean them here encompass all possible martial tactics and motions, be that the forces produced from Grappling with a partner or the concussive forces created through striking or impact.
How we move, and using which principle, will have wildly different implications for the interaction with the partner or opponent. The situation dictates the type of motion that is appropriate but it is fair to say that our aim is almost always to maximize the how our force is perceived by the opponent. Here we will explore some of the ways in which forces can be created or applied in general terms, the types of power we see in the fighting arts and their utility to the various combative fields.
It would be fair to say that the Martial Arts as a group of movements encompasses every possible articulation and direction that the human body is capable of producing, from the relatively static styles that focus on arm and hand dexterity to the acrobatic and athletic styles like some Silat or Brazilian Capoeira, which can exhibit flips, crawls and rolls, the term Martial Arts is a broad as the term ‘Sport’. It is quite a task to see through these many different and apparently divergent motions to recognize the commonalities between them. But if we zoom out enough we can see that there are in fact only 4 movement or force production concepts at play in all martial motions either in isolation but more often in a constant flow of combination.
In this post we will look at these 4 concepts and how they are used in the Martial Arts, then in later posts we will explore the impact of connection, alignment, the center, breathing, winding, intent and mind on them all.
The most basic, but still highly effective, principle we see in the martial arts is the ‘Isolated’ movement. This is characterized by motion of a single part of the body isolated from the rest. A good example for this would be someone stopping your attack at the elbow so you flick out your forearm to strike them with your hand. The elbow is static and the forearm moves in isolation from the rest of the body.
This method of isolated movement is often shunned because it lacks the mass and connection of some of the other movement types we will talk about, but it can be highly effective when used by an adept.You do not need whole body connected power to strike an eye ball or the jaw line, both of which I have seen used to great effect in order to set up more high powered finishing techniques. This method of movement is often seen to create new angles, to distract an opponent from more connected forces to come or Isolate one body part during contact so that the opponent doesn’t feel the re-positioning of your body on a new line. This method is often a ‘surprise’ method and angles and attacks from unexpected positions become possible.
Linear motion is the next step up from isolation motion in terms of power. Here the motion is backed up by the mass of the body and the co-ordinated effort of the body musculature and frame. This method of moving is characterized by force traveling along the obvious path, it goes straight to where you would think it goes.
So although someone might be rotating to perform a hook punch for instance, this would still be defined as Linear or direct because the power is traveling directly from the point of origination (rotation of the pelvis) to the point of impact (fist) with no added movement within that direction. This idea of direct motion is characterized by our ability to perceive it, this is not to say that these motions are crude or easy to stop, but that they are where we expect them to be.
This is where most striking in the Martial Arts is applied and where huge levels of power can be produced if the exponent is sufficiently developed. We see many MMA fighters exhibiting this linear/direct force to a very refined level, able to KO people with Jabs or straight kicks.
Perhaps most importantly this method adheres fully to the ‘rhythm and beat’ method of combat where there are definitive start and end points to the movement as power is expressed. Someone using direct or linear force/movement expression will have a rhythm and timing to their motion that can be recognized or understood. At the higher levels the beat and rhythm of an adept in Direct or linear motion can be ‘off beat’ and in strange and complicated rhythm, so even though the force is traveling the direct or obvious path, it is still extremely difficult to counter effectively.
Circular movement should not be necessarily confused with the path that a given action takes (because almost all human motion is in arcs!), instead here we are talking about the production of force using circles, especially circles in the joints. The rotation occurs at the level of the joints or vertebrae adding small, cumulative increases in power as a motion is performed. If we take the hook punch example above, now we would see rotational forces in the spine, shoulder, elbow, wrist, even hand all adding to the power of the direct or linear power already expressed. This is layered onto the Linear movement type and a big jump in power can be felt without the need to necessarily increase your body mass, speed or to bring more weight to bare on the situation.
This method also starts to take the exponent out of the ‘Rhythm and beat’ fighting model because the circularity occurring in the joints and throughout the body means that there is no ‘stop/start’ to the movement, you simply loop back around the circle. The advantage of this idea is in how the practitioner will feel ‘full’ of power all the time, because they are always expressing circularity and there is no point between the beats where they are in a limbo.
We see this method at work in high level grapplers who don’t really have a ‘Beat’ to their movement, they simply feel like a Boa Constrictor, looping coil after coil over you until you are finished. Anyone who has rolled with a high level BJJ exponent will understand the feeling, there is no gap to exploit, no obvious direction of power and no single point to counter.
Spiral movement is the highest level of movement complexity and the hardest level of movement for the opponent to counteract. Although this level generally does not exhibit any real increase in power from the proceeding levels, the power that it does produce is often perceived by the partner as exceedingly difficult to deal with because of the unusual direction. This level is very hard to actually see when the exponent exhibits it, it is not simply moving through space in a spiral shape and often is only realised on contact.
Spiral motion is the combination of Linear, circular and drilling or winding motions. These movements combined create the spiral, an extremely clever shape for combat and one which the human nervous system and action reaction cycle has a very hard time dealing with.
Imagine if you will a large corkscrew rotating in front of you. If you try to pick a point on the corkscrew to hold onto you will be drawn up while simultaneously around a circle, backwards and forward, left and right. This combination of all the directions in one make the spiral almost impossible for us to perceive accurately when trying to stop it. When you think you can touch a point, the point has already moves away from you alone the X,Y and Z axis simultaneously.
In this method we see the complete absence of the beat and rhythm method of fighting because the various parts of the body, working in harmony with one another, are always expressing spirals, which do not have an end point. Often, as seen in Tai Chi, the adept will be expressing simultaneous opposite spirals, one rising and one falling much like the Double Helix. This allows them to switch from rising to falling or from advancing to retreating without ever having to stop or reach an end point.
These 4 methods of movement, power and force production in the martial arts represent an scale of complexity and encompass all the various movements we see, from the Bui Ji of Wing Chun, to the Kimura of Brazilian Jiu Jitsu, to the ward off of Taiji, every movement will express either the isolated, linear, circular or spiraling quality.
It is important to realize that in most cases martial artists as they perform their given method will often flow between these various movement types or a combination of them. One minute they could be flicking out an isolated arm to create a reaction before seamlessly capturing the opponents limbs and applying circular power in the ensuing grappling exchange. Nothing in the Martial Arts ever remains static or outside of this flow of attributes. For instance a Wave type power, the type of which we would witness in Russian Systema is a combination of the direct or Linear and the Circle, the wave being made up of a direction and a series of repeating circular proportions. Similarly a Whipping type of power we see in some arts would be a combination of linear, circular and isolation.
In some internal arts and in the generation of internal power we often witness motions within motions, a rising force within an apparently sinking movement, or a deep spiral within an apparently linear movement as seen in Xing Yi's Beng Chuan. In upcoming posts, we will explore these ideas further and learn more about their application and utility.
We can’t really look at movement skills without talking about how movement complexity and capacity is handled by the brain and nervous system. It is our brains that give rise to our ability to move in complex ways and also our brains that allow us to retain good movement habits once they are learned.
Indeed, some people theorize that movement diversity is the reason for humans developing such large and complex brains.
Whole body power forms the bedrock of the internal arts. Our abilities to move every part of our body in harmony is as fundamental to the health benefits as it is to the martial effectiveness found in these styles. In this article we will explore one aspect of this whole body work, which I call the attribution of effort technique.
Grab hold of any high-level Judo-Ka and try to drag them around the mat and you notice one clear attribute, stability. In the grappling arts especially, the skill of stability is a core component of the training methods and one of the main attributes that is built.
Stability can be thought of as our ability to maintain control of our posture, position, motion, and mass, either when we move ourselves or when we move in association with a partner or opponent.
Following on from the previous article, today we will talk about one of the most fundamental aspects of internal power training, utilizing our intent to enhance and fuel our movement. Some systems of internal art place this concept at the very forefront of the system, Xing Yi Quan being a prominent example. The important of ‘intent’ should not be overlooked by the practitioner as it is both a useful training tool and a fundamental movement enhancer.
Intent can have many different interpretations in the various internal arts, there are some who say it means mind, some who say it means visualization, still others who say it is the direct use of our nervous systems, or others who identify it as the will to move energy around the body. For the purpose of clarity in this article I will use my own definition of Intent as it relates to the Internal practices I teach, but understand and accept that others may well define this idea differently for instance some would define my ideas on Intent as 'will power' (zhi rather than Yi).
(El-Labban et al.,1993)
Winding is a method by which we put a pressure on the body tissues via specialised stretching and rotation that will result in quantifiable change. Placing the right demand on the tissue is extremely important as our body begins to adapt.
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